Diaspora of Social Exclusion: Exploring Transgender Realities in the Context of Kerala



transgender, resource insecurity, structural social work, social exclusion, social integration


Inclusion, exclusion, discrimination and oppression of vulnerable communities and target groups have been in the discourses for decades. Social exclusion is a multi-dimensional concept that comprises Economic, Structural, and Societal Exclusion (G. Jehoel-Gijsbers & Vrooman, 2007). Most of the studies recognize that Transgender Communities are under social exclusion. Lack of family and community support in the name of gender identity maneuvered them into social marginalization and isolation (Ayyavoo, 2022). The amendments to the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act of India enacted in 2019 address non-binary persons' constitutional rights, recognition of their gender identity, and non-discrimination laws across institutional spaces. However, the community faces exclusion that intersects with social and economic wellbeing domains. Sporadic efforts to mainstream have not yet converged to achieve a realistic goal. The inclusion of these minority groups and reduction in inequalities, envisaged in the country's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), proffers the importance of understanding and describing the phenomenon of social exclusion as perceived by them subjectively. The current study is a qualitative examination of the social exclusion phenomenon experienced by the transgender community in Kerala. The study explored Social Exclusion from three dimensions – resource insecurity, structural exclusion and lack of social integration. The study utilized a case study method to illustrate a picture of exclusion experienced by transgender people. The descriptions of the themes advocate for transformative paradigms in knowledge and practice.

Author Biographies

  • Elsa Mary Jacob, Bharata Mata College

    Elsa Mary Jacob, MSW, PhD, Assistant Professor, Bharata Mata School of Social Work, Bharata Mata College, Thrikkakara, Kochi-682021; els.joe@gmail.com, +91-8281979296

  • Adnold Alin Goveas, Bharata Mata College

    Adnold Alin Goveas, Research Assistant, ICSSR Project, Bharata Mata School of Social Work, Bharata Mata College, Thrikkakara, Kochi-682021; adnoldgoveas@gmail.com, +91-6238991557


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Original Research

How to Cite

Jacob, E. M., & Goveas, A. A. (2024). Diaspora of Social Exclusion: Exploring Transgender Realities in the Context of Kerala. Journal of Social Work Education and Practice, 9(3). https://jswep.in/index.php/jswep/article/view/253